285. Pilgrimage declined in the modern period because of changed cultural circumstances, the events surrounding the protestant movement and also because of the influence of the enlightenment: the journey to a distant country become “a spiritual journey”, or an “interior journey”, or a “symbolic procession” reduced a short walk as in the case of the via Crucis.
But the shrine revived, in parallel with developing national spirit before the Great War:
The second half of the nineteenth century saw a revival or pilgrimage, but in a much changed form: the goal of such pilgrimage becomes a particular shrine which embodies the faith or cultural identity of specific nations: shrines can mentioned in this context such as Altoeting, Antipolo, Aparecida, Assisi, Caacupé, Coromoto, Czestochowa, Ernakilam-Angamaly, Fatima, Guadalupe, Kevelaer, Knock, La Vang, Loreto, Lourdes, Mariazell, Marienberg, Montevergine, Montserrat, Nagasaki, Namugongo, Padova, Pompei, San Giovanni Rotondo, Washington, Yamoussoukro etc..
Any important nation and shrine missing? Remember Nagasaki does not commemorate 1945, but the fact it was a Christian center of Japan. Tragic that a Christian nation would target a Christian site, is it not?
The Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy is online at the Vatican site.