The encyclical letter Laudato Si is available here on the Vatican website.
174. Let us also mention the system of governance of the oceans. International and regional conventions do exist, but fragmentation and the lack of strict mechanisms of regulation, control and penalization end up undermining these efforts. The growing problem of marine waste and the protection of the open seas represent particular challenges. What is needed, in effect, is an agreement on systems of governance for the whole range of so-called “global commons”.
The oceans far offshore have always thought to have been “open” in terms of travel, amassing resources, and such. We know there are problems with issues such as overfishing and waste disposal. How do these get resolved among nations, and who and how are the oceans policed?